Rosa Luxemburg was a Polish-Jewish political theorist and politician who acted as a Marxist activist, philosopher and revolutionary. She was involved in many socialist organizations in Germany from 1897 – 1919.
Luxemberg emigrated from Poland to Germany in 1897 by marrying the son of an old friend, Gustav Lubeck. After divorcing Lubeck and settling down in Berlin, she joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany’s women’s section, and would take the side of the far-left faction of the SPD, ultimately believing that political reform would only be achieved via revolution. During World War One, she acted as an anti-war activist, being a founding member of Die Internationale, which would later be renamed to the Spartacus League. They would write then-illegal anti-war pamphlets and distribute them. She was imprisoned twice fore this.
After her release from prison in 1918, she helped to form the KPD (Communist Party of Germany). In January 1919, she was one of the leading voices in the call for socialist revolution in Germany, and attempted an uprising on January 10. She was ultimately captured by the Freikorps and unjustly tortured before being murdered. Rosa’s strength and courage in the face of overwhelming authoritarian odds serve as an inspiration for socialist Jews everywhere!