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#183 – Jonathan Pollard

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In 1987, Jonathan Pollard, a former US government intelligence analyst, pled guilty to espionage and providing top-secret classified information to Israel. Under the Espionage Act, he was sentenced to life imprisonment. He is the only American to have gotten a life sentence for providing classified information to an American ally.

Pollard justified his actions by claiming “the American intelligence establishment collectively endangered Israel’s security by withholding crucial information”.1Why Jonathan Pollard spent 30 years in prison – The Times of Israel

A website dedicating to pursuing justice for Jonathan Pollard is online at JonathanPollard.org. It claims to be authorized by Jonathan and his wife Esther Pollard, and we have not found evidence to the contrary. It contains information about the case, as well as some political cartoons drawn in defense of Pollard, as seen below.

When Pollard arrive back in Israel on December 30, 2020, he was greeted with a hero’s welcome by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.


[Image credit: The Times of Israel]

 

 

 

#162 – Robert Waley Cohen

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https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw108143/Sir-Robert-Waley-Cohen

Waley Cohen joined the Shell company in 1901 and negotiated its merger with the Royal Dutch Oil Company in 1906. He was the director of the merged company and chief assistant to its managing director. He was the petroleum advisor to the Army Council during World War I, and received a Most Excellent Order of the British Empire.

Robert Waley Cohen was generally opposed to Zionism, and was the main creator of the Palestine Corporation.1A conglomerate with various diverse business interests

He was listed in ‘The Black Book’ of prominent subjects to be arrested in the case of a successful Nazi invasion of Britain. 2The Schellenberg Memoirs, London 1956 (Deutsch: Aufzeichungen, München 1979) pp 174.

#161 – Chaim Weizmann

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In 1910, Chaim Weizmann became a British citizen when Winston Churchill as Home Secretary signed his papers, and held his British nationality until 1948, when he renounced it to assume his position as President of Israel.1https://www.jta.org/1948/10/03/archive/weizmann-reveals-truman-promised-negev-to-jews-surrenders-his-british-citizenship In Britain, he was known as Charles Weizmann, a name under which he registered 100 research patents. 2https://web.archive.org/web/20150402150217/http://wws.weizmann.ac.il/board/sites/board/files/internationalmagazine_vol3_-_spring_2013.pdf3https://books.google.com/books?id=L_FhfTvzjygC&q=%22Charles+Weizmann%22&pg=PA950#v=snippet&q=%22Charles%20Weizmann%22&f=false At the end of World War II, it was discovered that the SS had compiled a list in 1940 of over 2.8k people living in Britain, which included Weizmann, who were to have been immediately arrested after an invasion of Britain had the ultimately abandoned Operation Sea Lion been successful. 41940: The Nazi Invasion Plan for Britain, p. 260.

Weizmann devoted himself to the establishment of a scientific institute for basic research in the vicinity of his estate in the town of Rehovot. Weizmann saw great promise in science as means to bring peace and prosperity to the area. As stated in his own words: “I trust and feel sure that in my heart that science will bring to this land both peace and a renewal of its youth, creating here the springs of a new spiritual and material life… I speak of both science for its own sake and science as a means to an end.”5https://web.archive.org/web/20070511004603/http://www.weizmann.ac.il/Organic_Chemistry/weizlab.shtml His efforts led in 1934 to the creation of the Daniel Sieff Research Institute, which was financially supported by an endowment by Israel Sieff in memory of his late son.6https://web.archive.org/web/20170704141920/http://www.weizmann.ac.il/pages/about-institute

Weizmann was also absent from the first Zionist conference, held in 1897 in Basel, Switzerland, because of travel problems, but he attended the Second Zionist Congress in 1898 and each one thereafter. Beginning in 1901, he lobbied for the founding of a Jewish Institution of higher learning in Palestine. Together with Martin Buber and Berthold Feiwel, he presented a document to the Fifth Zionist Congress highlighting this need specifically in the fields of science and engineering. This idea would later be crystallized in the foundation of Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in 1912.7TECHNION: The Story of Israel’s Institute of Technology

#160 – Felix Frankfurter

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https://www.history.com/topics/us-government/felix-frankfurter

 

When the United States entered World War I in 1917, Frankfurter took a special leave from Harvard to serve as special assistant to the Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. He was appointed Judge Advocate General, supervising military courts-martial for the War Department.1https://archive.org/details/peopleshistoryof00iron

In September 1917, he was appointed counsel to a commission, the President’s Mediation Committee, established by President Wilson to resolve major strikes threatening war production. Overall, Frankfurter’s work gave him an opportunity to learn firsthand about labor politics and extremism, including anarchism, communism, and revolutionary socialism. Former President Theodore Roosevelt accused him of being “engaged in excusing men precisely like the Bolsheviki in Russia.”

Frankfurter was encouraged by the Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis to become more involved in Zionism. With Brandeis he lobbied President Wilson to support the Balfour Declaration, a British government statement supporting the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.2https://books.google.com/books?id=T91sokr_nJYC&q=felix+frankfurter&pg=PA112 In 1918, he participated in the founding conference of the American Jewish Congress in Philadelphia, creating a national democratic organization of Jewish leaders from all over the U.S.3https://web.archive.org/web/20071212030021/https://time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,788721,00.html In 1919, Frankfurter served as a Zionist delegate to the Paris Peace Conference.

#159 – Louis Brandeis

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Brandeis was being called “the people’s lawyer.” He no longer accepted payment for “public interest” cases even when they required pleading before judges, legislative committees, or administrative agencies. He began to give his opinion by writing magazine articles, making speeches, and helping form interest groups. He insisted on serving without pay so that he could freely address the wider issues involved beyond the case at hand. 1Klebanow, Diana, and Jonas, Franklin L. People’s Lawyers: Crusaders for Justice in American History, M.E. Sharpe (2003)

Although originally a La Follette Republican, Brandeis switched to the Democrats and urged his friends and associates to join him.2https://books.google.com/books?id=hh2WpPTG53sC&pg=PA76#v=onepage&q&f=false3https://books.google.com/books?id=hh2WpPTG53sC&pg=PA76#v=onepage&q&f=false The two men (Wilson & Brandeis) met for the first time at a private conference in New Jersey that August and spent three hours discussing economic issues. Brandeis left the meeting a “confirmed admirer” of Wilson, who he said was likely to make an “ideal president.” 4Mason, Thomas A. Brandeis: A Free Man’s Life, Viking Press (1946)

On January 28, 1916, Wilson nominated Brandeis to become a member of the U.S. Supreme Court.5https://www.nytimes.com/1916/01/29/archives/brandeis-named-for-highest-court-will-be-opposed-president.html His nomination was bitterly contested and denounced by conservative Republicans. Further opposition came from members of the legal profession, claiming Brandeis was “unfit” to serve on the Supreme Court.

#158 – Henry Morgenthau Jr.

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In 1934, when William H. Woodin resigned because of poor health, Roosevelt appointed Morgenthau Secretary of Treasury; even conservatives approved.1https://archive.org/details/frommorgenthaudi0000blum pg. 74 Morgenthau was a strict monetarist. President Roosevelt, Morgenthau, and Federal Reserve Chairman Marriner Stoddard Eccles jointly kept interest rates low during the depression to finance massive public spending, and then later to support rearmament, support for Britain, and U.S. participation in WWII.2https://mises.org/library/origins-federal-reserve-23https://web.archive.org/web/20091229174605/http://www.minneapolisfed.org/community_education/student/centralbankhistory/4https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/obituary-william-mcchesney-martin-1172986.html

Morgenthau used his position as Treasury chief to investigate organized crime and government corruption. Treasury Intelligence and other agencies were uncoordinated in their efforts; efforts to create a super-agency were stalled by J. Edgar Hoover, who feared his FBI would be overshadowed. Nevertheless, Morgenthau created a coordinator for the Treasury agencies; although the coordinator could not control them, he could move them to some cooperation.

Morgenthau believed in balanced budgets, stable currency, deduction of the national debt, and the need for more private investment. The Wagner Act regarding labor unions met Morgenthau’s requirement, because it strengthened the party’s political base and involved no new spending.  Morgenthau accepted Roosevelt’s double budget as legitimate, a balanced regular budget, and an “emergency” budget for agencies (ie. Works Progress Administration / Public Works Administration / Civilian Conservation Corps) that would be temporary until full recovery was at hand.

#157 – Bernard Baruch

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In the 1920s and 1930s, Baruch expressed his concern that the United States needed to be prepared for the possibility of another world war. He wanted a more powerful version of the War Industries Board, which he saw as the only way to ensure maximum coordination between civilian business and military needs.1Leab, Daniel et al., ed. The Great Depression and the New Deal: A Thematic Encyclopedia ABC-CLIO Inc., 2010, p. 11. Baruch remained a prominent government adviser during this time, and supported Franklin D. Roosevelt’s domestic and foreign policy initiatives after his election.

When the United States entered World War II, Baruch supported what was known as a “work or fight” bill. He advocated the creation of permanent superagency similar to his old Industries Board. His theory enhanced the role of civilian businessmen and industrialists in determining what was needed and who would produce it. Baruch’s ideas were largely adopted, with James Byrnes appointed to carry them out. It is estimated that these policies cut two years off the time taken to produce tanks, bombers, etc. and caught Hitler totally by surprise.

In February 1943, Roosevelt invited Baruch to replace the widely criticized War Production Board head Donald M. Nelson. Baruch had long coveted the job, and responded that he only needed to ask his doctor if he was healthy enough for the post. During the delay, however, presidential advisor Harry Hopkins persuaded Roosevelt that firing Nelson at the army’s demands would make him look weak, and when Roosevelt and Baruch met at the White House, Roosevelt declined to discuss the job offer further.2https://books.google.com/books?id=wQcMDdFC1QEC&q=doris+goodwin+eleanor#v=snippet&q=doris%20goodwin%20eleanor&f=false pp. 411–4123Herman, Arthur. Freedom’s Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 12-13, 247, Random House, New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.

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