“Karl Landsteiner” – JewishVirtualLibrary.org
“Karl Landsteiner” – NobelPrize.org
“Karl Landsteiner” – Wikipedia.org
“Thomas Friedan” – BrowseBiography.com
“Tom Friedan” – Wikipedia
Throughout the 1950’s, Blumberg traveled the world taking human blood samples, to study the genetic variations in human beings, focusing on the question why some people contract a disease in a given environment, while others do not. In 1964, while studying hepatitis, he discovered a surface antigen for hepatitis B in the blood of an Australian aborigine, hence initially called the ‘Australian antigen.’ His work later demonstrated that the virus could cause liver cancer.
In 2000, Blumberg received the Golden Gate Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement. In 2001, Blumberg was named to the Library of Congress Scholars Council, a body of distinguished scholars that advises the Librarian of Congress. Blumberg served on the council until his death.
In an interview with The New York Times in 2002, he stated that “[Saving lives] is what drew me to medicine. There is, in Jewish thought, this idea that if you save a single life, you save the whole world.”
In discussing the factors that influenced his life, Blumberg always gave credit to the mental discipline of the Jewish Talmud, and as often as possible, he attended weekly Talmud Discussion classes until his death.
Rachel Schneerson was a senior investigator in the Laboratory in Developmental and Molecular Immunity and head of the Section on Bacterial Disease Pathogens and Immunity within the Laboratory at the Eunice Kennedy Shiver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development within the National Institutes of Health.
Scheerson did a rotating internship at Tel-Hashomer Government Hospital, Tel-Aviv, Israel, followed by pediatrics residency at Hillel-Jaffe Government Hospital, Hadera, Israel. She then returned to Tel-Hashomer Government Hospital, in Tel-Aviv for a pediatrics residency and a year as a senior resident in Internal Medicine and Cytogenetics.
Scheerson is also best known for her work on the vaccine for Haemophilus influenza type B, or HiB. Prior to the vaccine’s use, Hib infested 20K U.S. children younger than age 5 each year; 5% died of those, and 1/3 were left with intellectual disability, deafness, or seizures.
Dr. John Robbins, Developer of a Meningitis Vaccine, Dies at 86 (NY Times).
Robbins was a recipient of the 1996 Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research, the Pasteur Award from the World Health Organization, and the Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal in 2001, which he received for playing a major role in the development of Hib conjugate vaccine that is now used throughout the world and has led to a dramatic decline in the number of infants and children suffering from meningitis and other systemic infections, such as osteomyelitis and pneumonia.