Polish-American scientist of mathematics and nuclear physics.
Originated the Teller-Ulam thermonuclear weapon design, discovered the concept of cellular automation, and suggested nuclear pulse propulsion.
Ulam worked with Edward Teller on the Manhattan Project. He found that Teller’s “Super” bomb design was unworkable, so they co-created the Teller-Ulam Design, which is the basis for all thermonuclear weapons.
March 5, 2022 Sciences
Conceived the nuclear chain reaction in 1933, and patented several important inventions, such as the electron microscope, the linear accelerator, the cyclotron, and the idea of a nuclear fission reactor.
After the Nazi rise to power, Szilard fled Germany for Britain and assisted refugee scholars in finding new jobs. Forseeing another European war, he moved to the US to work on creating a nuclear chain reaction. In 1939, he wrote the letter for Albert Einstein's signature that resulted in the Manhattan Project.
British physicist. Worked with his aunt, Lise Meitner, to advance the first theoretical explanation of nuclear fission (a term he coined).
Nuclear fission led to the creation of atomic weapons in WW2.
Frisch later collaborated with Rudolf Peierls to design the mechanism for the detonation of an atomic bomb in 1940. He was also involved with the Manhattan Proiect and conducted research in the Los Alamos Laboratory.
Austrian-Swedish physicist. Greatly contributed to the discovery of the element protactinium and nuclear fission.
The principle of fission led to the development of the atomic bomb in World War II.
Meitner was praised by Albert Einstein as the "German Marie Curie".
She was the aunt of fellow physicist and collaborator Otto Robert Frisch, who was also Jewish.
British physicist who played a major role in both Tube Alloys, Britain's nuclear weapon program, as well as the subsequent Manhattan Project, which produced nuclear weapons for use in WW2.
Peirels came under scrutiny after Klaus Fuchs, a compatriot whom he had recruited to the Manhattan Project, was exposed as a Soviet spy in 1950. The scrutiny remained for many years, restricting Peierls' ability to operate as a scientist in America.
Hungarian theoretical physicist who obtained American citizenship and received a Nobel Prize in Physics for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and elementary particles.
Wigner, along with Einstein, Szilard, Teller, and others, played a major role in advocating to the American government for the Manhattan Project, which developed nuclear weapons for use in WW2. From 1942 to 1945, he worked on the Manhattan Project at the University of Chicago.
Widely acknowledged as one of the greatest physicists of all time.
Developed the theory of relativity. His mass-energy equivalence formula, "e=mc²", is regarded as "the world's most famous equation".
In 1939, along with Szilard, Wigner, Teller, and others, Einstein worked to alert the American government of the necessity of developing atomic weapons in anticipation of a future conflict with Germany. They believed that Germany could win the race to the atomic bomb, and that "Hitler would be more than willing to resort to such a weapon."
March 2, 2022 Sciences
American engineer and pioneer of sanitary engineering.
His research contributed to standardizing the practice of using chlorine to purify water, which has increased the safety of municipal water supplies globally.
Since 1985, the American Water Works Association has annually presented the Abel Woman Award of Excellence to individuals working in the water industry.
July 6, 2021 Sciences
Theoretical physicist and member of the Manhattan Project, charged with developing the first atomic bomb during World War II.
Was one of the strongest and best-known advocates for investigating non-military uses of nuclear explosives.
Teller advised Israel on nuclear matters, and on the building of a hydrogen bomb in particular. He also persuaded the CIA to end attempts at inspecting the Negev Nuclear Research Center in Dimona.
May 23, 2021 Sciences
American biologist who was an influential researcher in steroidal hormones.
Gregory Goodwin Pincus went on to develop hormonal birth control, which was instrumental in ushering in the sexual revolution.
Following a meeting with the founder of Planned Parenthood, Margaret Sanger, Pincus was able to secure a grant for his research into hormonal birth control.
May 18, 2021 Adult Entertainment, Feminism, Sciences
Wartime head of the Los Alamos Laboratory (also known as project Y), a secret laboratory created as part of the Manhattan Project to develop the first nuclear weapons during WWII.
Among those credited with being the "father of the atomic bomb".
After WWII, Oppenheimer became chairman of the General Advisory Committee of the newly created US Atomic Energy Commission. He lobbied for international control of nuclear power to avoid nuclear proliferation and escalation.
April 23, 2021 Sciences
Russian-born biochemist, Zionist leader and the first President of Israel.
Weizmann was the man who convinced the US government to recognize the newly formed state of Israel.
On August 29, 1939, Weizmann sent a letter to Neville Chamberlain stating in part: "I wish to confirm in the most explicit manner... that the Jews stand by Great Britain and will fight on the side of the democracies."
December 24, 2020 Government, Sciences