German communist politician.
Leading member of the Communist Party of Germany.
Scholem was a member of the German Reichstag from 1924 to 1928. He was arrested by the Nazis when they took power in 1933, deported to Buchenwald in 1938, and later executed by the SS along with Ernst Heilmann, another Jewish former Reichstag member.
May 6, 2022 Socialism
Holocaust survivor and urologist who, along with 20,000 other Jewish refugees, fled to China in the 1930s to escape Nazi repression.
Rosenfeld served around China as a surgeon and Minister of Health in the Provisional Communist Military Government of China. He received a rank equivalent to that of a general.
March 5, 2022 Socialism
British-born Communist ideologue, activist, and spy who long resided in China.
Crook fought in the Spanish Civil War, was recruited by the NKVD, and was sent to China during WWII.
After WWII, he lived in China, where he spent most of the remainder of his life.
American-born Chinese lawyer, translator, and actor who lived in China from 1947 to his death in 2014.
As one of the very few naturalized citizens of the PRC, Shapiro held citizenship from 1963 to his death.
In 1983, he was elected as a member of a governmental assembly of the PRC that provided a forum for input from non-Communist political organizations.
A US Treasury representative in China during WWIl.
Resigned from the Treasury Department after being identified as a Soviet spy by Soviet defectors in 1950.
Adler resided in China from the 1960s to his death, working as a translator and economic advisor.
The first American citizen admitted into the Communist Party of China.
An influential advisor to Mao Zedong who had a pivotal role at the Broadcast Authority, explaining the Chinese Communist point of view to America.
Rittenberg was imprisoned twice in solitary confinement by the Chinese Communist Party on suspicions of espionage.
He remained loyal to the party and was apologized to by CCP leadership upon his release.
Polish-born journalist and author who lived in China from the age of 2. Briefly lived in the US during the 1940s, but returned to China in 1951 to edit the magazine “China Today”. He lived there for the rest of his life.
Epstein became a member of the Chinese Communist Party in 1957. He was honored by many Chinese officials throughout his life, including Mao Zedong.
June 15, 2021 Socialism
Bolshevik Comintern official who was sent to China in 1920 as a senior advisor to contact the most prominent Chinese communists, just before the formation of the Communist Party of China.
The process of forming the Communist Party of China can be mostly attributed to his influence.
Grigori Voitinsky is considered one of the founders of Soviet Sinology, and wrote several books about contemporary Chinese politics. He died in 1953 during a failed surgical operation.
May 9, 2021 Socialism
Swedish banker who served as the head of the Stockholm bank Nya Banken.
A leftist sympathizer, Olof Aschberg helped finance the Bolsheviks during the Russian Revolution. In gratitude, the Bolsheviks allowed him to do business with the Soviet Union in the 1920s.
Aschberg founded the first Swedih bank for trade unions and cooperatives, Nya Banken, in 1912. He also helped finance the Popular Front in the Spanish Civil War.
April 17, 2021 Banking, Finance, Socialism
Russian writer and journalist who wrote many first hand accounts of WWII battles at Moscow, Stalingrad, Kursk, and Berlin.
His eyewitness reports of Nazi extermination camp Treblinka were among the earliest accounts of death camps by a journalist.
Vasily Grossman wrote The Black Book of Soviet Jewry, the first documentary work made on the Holocaust, with Ilya Ehrenburg.
January 3, 2021 Socialism
Soviet writer, Bolshevik revolutionary, journalist, and historian.
Ilya Ehrenburg wrote The Black Book of Soviet Jewry, the first documentary work made on the Holocaust, with Vasily Grossman.
In WWII, Ehrenburg declared that Germans were “not human”, and wrote numerous articles calling for vengeance against the German population for the crimes of Nazi Germany. This earned him huge popularity among Soviet front-line soldiers.
Serbian and Yugoslavian communist who was a close collaborator of Josip Broz Tito, the President of the SFR Yugoslavia.
In 1943, Moša Pijade initiated the founding of “TANJUG”, the state news agency of SFR Yugoslavia (nowadays it serves Serbia).
January 2, 2021 Socialism
Leading figures in the development of the Anarchist political philosophy, and activists in the associated political movement.
In 1892, Goldman and Berkman made a plan to assassinate industrialist and financier Henry Clay Frick as an act of propaganda-of-the-deed.
The attempt failed and Alexander Berkman was sent to prison.
January 1, 2021 Socialism
Soviet politician and one of the main associates of Joseph Stalin.
Known for helping Stalin come to power, his role in the Holodomor, and harsh treatment of those deemed threats to Stalin’s regime.
During WWII, Lazar Kaganovich was commissar of two Caucasian fronts. After the war, he was made deputy head of the Soviet government.
December 29, 2020 Socialism
Soviet politician and high commander of the Red Army.
Minister of State Control for the Soviet Union from 1940 to 1941, and 1946 to 1950.
During WWII, Lev Mekhlis was responsible for five to seven Soviet fighting fronts.
December 28, 2020 Socialism
Russian revolutionary and prominent Soviet politician.
Named People’s Commissar of Foreign Affairs in 1930. In the subsequent decade, Maxim Litvinov emerged as a leading voice for Soviet policy of collective security with Western powers against Nazi Germany.
Litvinov was born to a wealthy Lithuanian-Jewish banking family, and his birthname was “Meir Henoch Wallach-Finkelstein”
South African politician, and opponent of the apartheid system.
Leader and theorist in the South African Communist Party (SACP).
There are only two sorts of people in life you can trust - good Christians and good Communists.
December 12, 2020 Socialism
Hungarian Communist Party leader in the period after World War II.
Former second secretary of Hungary's ruling communist party.
Gerő led the country for a brief period, known as the 'Gerő Interregnum', lasting for over three months. He had been Rákosi's close associate since 1948, and was involved in party expulsions, the industrialization and collectivization of Hungary.
Member of the Socialist Party of America, and former leader of the Communist Party of the USA.
Lovestone was expelled from the Commmunist Party for his support of Nikolai Bukharin, and for his theory of American exceptionalism. After his expulsion, he became an anti-communist, and even provided information on Communist labor unions to the CIA.
American Communist politician and labor leader.
Served as Executive Secretary of the unified Communist Party of America.
In 1953, Weinstone and 12 other Communist leaders were convicted of conspiracy to advocate the violent overthrow of the Government. He served two years in a Federal prison and was fined $4,000.
Russian revolutionary, economist, and Soviet politician.
A member of the Politburo, the highest policy-making authority within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
When Lenin was forced to go into hiding in 1917, Sokolnikov and Stalin were given joint control over the Bolshevik’s newspapers.
Later, Sokolnikov engaged in vocal opposition to Stalin, and was eventually executed in Stalin’s Great Purge.
American citizens who were convicted of spying on behalf of the Soviet Union; specifically, nuclear weapon designs, while the US was the only country in the world with nuclear weapons.
The execution was scheduled for June 20, at 11 p.m during the Jewish Sabbath. It was rescheduled for 8 p.m. - before sunset.
Soviet secret police official who served as director of the NKVD
Supervised the construction of the White Sea-Baltic Canal.
Yagoda was a defendant at the Trial of the Twenty-One. He admitted his guilt and was executed.
Polish Marxist and revolutionary socialist.
In 1919, Luxemburg was executed by the German Freikorps, a military unit dispatched by the Weimar Republic's government, after being one of the leaders of an attempted Communist revolution in post-WWI Berlin.
Bolshevik revolutionary and prominent Soviet politician.
Member of the Politburo, the highest policy-making authority within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
During Lenin's final illness, Kamenev served as the acting leader of the Soviet Union.
Prominent Bolshevik revolutionary, political theorist and politician.
Developer of “Trotskyism”, a variation of Marxism.
After being purged from the Soviet leadership and Communist Party by Stalin, Trotsky spent the rest of his life in exile, where he advocated a new “Fourth International” revolutionary organization in opposition to Stalin’s Comintern.
In 1940, he was killed with an ice ax by an assassin in Mexico.
Russian revolutionary and Soviet politician.
Chairman of the Communist International in the 1920s.
As head of the Communist International, Zinoviev’s efforts to mobilize communist revolution abroad failed. His involvement in providing aid to German communists attempting to overthrow the Weimar Republic vilified him in the international eye.
He was eventually executed in Stalin’s Great Purge.